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Costimulatory signals mediated by the ITAM motif cooperate with RANKL for bone homeostasis.
Koga T, Inui M, Inoue K, Kim S, Suematsu A, Kobayashi E, Iwata T, Ohnishi H, Matozaki T, Kodama T, Taniguchi T, Takayanagi H, Takai T.
Department of Immunology, Graduate School of Medicine and Faculty of Medicine, University of Tokyo, Hongo 7-3-1, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033, Japan.
Costimulatory signals are required for activation of immune cells, but it is not known whether they contribute to other biological systems. The development and homeostasis of the skeletal system depend on the balance between bone formation and resorption. Receptor activator of NF-kappaB ligand (RANKL) regulates the differentiation of bone-resorbing cells, osteoclasts, in the presence of macrophage-colony stimulating factor (M-CSF). But it remains unclear how RANKL activates the calcium signals that lead to induction of nuclear factor of activated T cells c1, a key transcription factor for osteoclastogenesis. Here we show that mice lacking immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM)-harbouring adaptors, Fc receptor common gamma subunit (FcRgamma) and DNAX-activating protein (DAP)12, exhibit severe osteopetrosis owing to impaired osteoclast differentiation. In osteoclast precursor cells, FcRgamma and DAP12 associate with multiple immunoreceptors and activate calcium signalling through phospholipase Cgamma. Thus, ITAM-dependent costimulatory signals activated by multiple immunoreceptors are essential for the maintenance of bone homeostasis. These results reveal that RANKL and M-CSF are not sufficient to activate the signals required for osteoclastogenesis.
PMID: 15085135 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]